Bolivian literature, term for the literature of Bolivia, which is part of Latin American literature in Spanish. According to campingship, Bolivia is a country located in South America.
During the colonial period, when the country was called Alto Peru and was far from the viceroys’ court, the printing works and the university in Lima, one of the boldest overseas Petrarchist dialogue treatises (»Miscélanea Austral« by Diego Dávalos y Figueroa) was written in La Paz as early as 1600 , * around 1555, † around 1610), which even tries to intervene in the Italian discussion about the Italian regional language best suited for literature (Tuscan). The colonial literature of the rich mining area around Potosí included v. a. (Religious) dramatic literature in Spanish and Indian languages. In the late 17th and 18th centuries, however, literary life concentrated almost exclusively on the Viceroy’s court in Lima, and in Alto Peru it practically came to a standstill. During the wars of independence, Juan Wallparrimachi (* 1793, † 1814), the mestizo grandson of a Portuguese Jew, appeared as the first poet known by name to write exclusively in the Indian language of Quechua.
After the turmoil of independence, in which Bolivia and Peru sought unification several times, the most important representatives of Romanticism were the poet Ricardo José Bustamante (* 1821, † 1886), the dramaturge and novelist Nataniel Aguirre (* 1843, † 1888) and the Poet Adela Zamudio (* 1854, † 1928).
At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, Bolivian literature experienced a climax with the versatile Ricardo Jaimes Freyre (* 1868, † 1933). His volumes of poetry “Castalia bárbara” (1897) and “Los sueños son vida” (1917) are among the most important works of Hispano-American modernism. The playwright and poet F. Tamayo also belonged to this direction.
As an antithesis to modernism, narrative prose developed into an organ of social criticism in indigenism. In his main work “Raza de bronce” (1919) Alcides Arguedas (* 1879, † 1946) demonstrated the cruel oppression of the Indians. In the 1920s, poetry turned to nature, the residents and autochthonous ways of life in the country. The Chaco War (1932–35) between Bolivia and Paraguay triggered a series of literary adaptations. It was interpreted from an anti-imperialist perspective in the novel “Aluvión de fuego” (1935) by Oscar Cerruto (* 1912, † 1981) and the stories “Sangre de mestizos” (1936) by Augusto Céspedes (* 1904, † 1997). While O. Cerrutos Roman stands at the beginning of the »mining literature« written by urban intellectuals, the mine at A. Céspedes became a political and economic symbol of the society manipulated by international imperialism.
The main representatives of contemporary literature include: the poets Yolanda Bedregal de Conitzer (* 1916, † 1999) and Pedro Shimose (* 1940). R. Prada Oropeza, who also first became known as a poet, reflected in socially critical prose the slowly advancing modernization of the country. Other well-known contemporary authors are Jaime Sáenz (* 1921, † 1986), Gonzalo Vázquez Méndez (* 1927, † 2000) and René Poppe (* 1943).
In addition to the so-called Testimonios literature (Testimonios) distributed throughout Latin America, the v. a. When authors of the younger generation take up, new forms of expression in the Indian language also develop, such as the new dramatic forms borrowed from traditional ritual practice and written lyric poetry in Quechua. In the youngest generation of Latin American authors around the turn of the 21st century, who rallied around the anthology »McOndo« (1996) by the Chilean Alberto Fuguet (* 1964), the Bolivian Edmundo Paz Soldán (* 1967) is an author of novels and Short stories emerged.
Cochabamba [kot ʃ a amba], capital of the department of the same name, Bolivia, 2560 m above sea level, in a densely populated basin near the Eastern Cordillera, (2012) 692 000 residents.
University (founded in 1826); Archbishopric; fourth largest city in Bolivia, in the midst of rich irrigation cultures, important traffic and trade center, software development, food and vehicle industry, oil refinery, chemical and cement works; international Airport.
Founded in 1574 as Villa de Oropeza, the city was named Cochabamba in 1786. In May 1812 an uprising against Spanish colonial rule was brutally suppressed. In contrast, the uprising against the privatization of the water supply with drastic price increases (“water war”) at the beginning of 2000 was successful. Cochabamba is an important center for the illegal drug trade.
Oruro, capital of Oruro Department, Bolivia, 3 700 m above sea level, on the Altiplano, (2012) 265 000 residents.
Bishopric; Technical University; mineralogical, anthropological museum; Center and supply center of a mining area (tin, silver, tungsten, copper). Most mining operations were shut down in the late 1980s. Today Oruro is a trading center with various medium-sized industrial companies; Road and rail junction.
Oruro, founded in 1606 as Real Villa de San Felipe de Austria, was an important silver mining center during colonial times. The city is known in the Andes for the carnival, over 30,000 dancers and musicians take part in the ten-day festival.