Estonia Population

By | May 6, 2024

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Estonia is 1,228,624, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 1,228,624
Population growth rate -0.65%
Birth rate 10.10 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall 73.82 years
Men 68.58 years
Women 79.40 years
Age structure
0-14 years 16.30%
15-64 years 63.50%
65 years and above 20.20%
Median age 42.10 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.84
Population density 27.17 residents per km²
Urbanization 69.40%
70% Estonians, 25% Russians, 2% Ukrainians, 1% Belarusians, 0.6% Finns – proportion of foreigners in 2015: 14.6% (mainly Russians)
Lutherans, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptists, Methodists, Seventh-Day Adventists, Catholics (Roman Catholic), Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jews
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.882
HDI ranking 30th out of 194

People in Estonia

1.3 million people live in Estonia. Around a third of them live in the capital Tallinn. The second largest city is Tartu with 92,000 residents. A total of 68 percent of Estonians live in a city.

Estonians make up 69 percent of the population in Estonia. The proportion of Russians in the country is very high, namely 25 percent, i.e. a quarter of all residents. It’s similar to Latvia. Smaller minorities are Ukrainians (2 percent), Belarusians (1.1 percent) and Finns (0.8 percent). There are also around 500 Estonian Swedes living on Estonia’s west coast. These are descendants of Swedes who settled here in the Middle Ages.

The Russians who moved there during the time of the Soviet Union did not receive a passport with independence in 1991 and were thus stateless. You can be naturalized, but you have to pass a language test in Estonian.

Few people in Estonia still belong to a church. 16 percent are Orthodox Christians, 10 percent are Protestants. More than 70 percent do not belong to any church or have not declared their religious affiliation.

Languages in Estonia

The official language in Estonia is Estonian. It is spoken by around 70 percent of the population. In addition, Russian is still widespread, because around a quarter of the population are Russian.

Estonian is closely related to Finnish. It belongs to the Finno-Ugric languages. This makes it one of only a few languages ​​in Europe that do not count among the Indo-European languages. However, there are many loanwords from German in Estonian, because Germans lived here for several centuries. These include, for example, müts (hat) or würts (spice). You can also guess what reisibüroo means. The many vowels are typical of Estonian. Then there are also words like Jäääär!

Written is Estonian (which we also write) in Latin characters. There are also a few additional letters that we do not know: š, ž, ü, ä, ö and õ. There is no z. Words are almost always stressed on the first syllable. An exception is aitäh – that means thank you.

Estonia Overview

Estonia, located in Northern Europe, is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Latvia, and Russia. Renowned for its digital society, Estonia is considered one of the world’s most advanced digital nations, with e-residency and widespread internet voting. The capital, Tallinn, is famous for its preserved medieval Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage site, showcasing cobblestone streets and picturesque buildings. Estonia also boasts a diverse landscape of forests, lakes, and islands, offering numerous nature activities. The country’s rich history, combining influences from the German, Swedish, and Russian rule, is evident in its architecture and cultural festivals.

State Facts of Estonia:

  • Capital City: Tallinn
  • Population: Approximately 1.3 million
  • Area: Approximately 45,339 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Estonia
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Language: Estonian
  • ISO Country Codes: EE, EST, 233

Bordering Countries of Estonia

Estonia is a small country located in Northern Europe, bordered by the Gulf of Finland to the north, Latvia to the south, Russia to the east and the Baltic Sea to the west. The country is known for its beautiful landscapes and rich culture.

To the east of Estonia lies Russia, with a border that stretches over 294 kilometers. This border has been a source of tension between Estonia and Russia due to various disputes that have occurred over time. Despite this, trade between these two countries has been strong in recent years as both countries look for ways to strengthen their economic ties. To the south lies Latvia, with a border stretching over 343 kilometers. Latvia is an important ally for Estonia, as both countries share similar cultural values and have worked together on many initiatives such as energy security and transportation links. To the west lies Finland, with a border stretching over 80 kilometers. Finland and Estonia have close ties due to their shared history during World War II when they were occupied by Soviet forces. Trade between these two countries has been strong in recent years due to their close proximity and shared history. Lastly, there is also maritime boundary line which separates Estonia from Sweden in the Baltic Sea; this line stretches around 100 kilometers long. Sweden is an important trading partner for Estonia due to its access to Scandinavian markets and its technological prowess; it also provides many tourists each year who come to visit Estonian cities such as Tallinn or Tartu.


One thought on “Estonia Population

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *