Fauna. – According to EHUACOM, the Mongolian fauna is very interesting for the relationships it presents both with the European fauna and with that of the eastern region, while retaining a particular facies. Among the Mammals we will mention various Chiroptera of the group of true Bats. There are numerous Insectivores with different species of the Talpidae, Soricidae, Erinaceidae families. Among the Carnivores there are some bears, the tiger which extends its domain up to the Amur valley, the panther, a kind of lynx, several wild cats. Among the rodents, the marmot, the mountain hare and many other species of the order which differ more or less specifically from the Siberian ones. Among the Ungulates we will notice various antelopes and deer. The avifauna is quite rich and among the most numerous species are the Gallinacei, particularly pheasants, exclusively Asian forms represented by species with a magnificent livery, many of which also live in a state of domesticity. Reptiles and Amphibians are few in number. Among the former we will mention some species of Ophidî, some of which are poisonous, various Lacertilî, skinkids, geckos and among the latter some salamanders, sometimes of considerable size, various other species of ranidae, bufonidae and tree frogs. The entomological fauna is quite developed; it differs considerably from the Siberian one for the poverty of the Carabidae species among the Beetles and for the richness of Lamellicorn species. Well represented are the Lepidoptera and in general the other orders of insects and terrestrial arthropods. Numerous other species of terrestrial molluscs and other invertebrates are added to complete this interesting fauna complex.
Flora and vegetation. – Mongolia belongs to what A. Grisebach called the steppe domain, in which three zones can be distinguished: the mountains of Turkestān to the west, the mountains between Siberia and Mongolia to the east and the internal slope of the Himālaya to the south. Out of 1296 species of seagrasses known in 1884 for Mongolia, over 80% were endemic forms, and subsequent research has not significantly shifted this percentage. Depending on the different regions, there is a notable variation in flora and vegetation.
In the northern mountain ranges there are pine forests (Pinus Schrenkiana and other species), cedars, larches, birches, poplars, etc., while on their rocky slopes there are rare species of shrubs. The mountains of NO. they are less wooded; it is then generally observed that while the northern slopes of the mountains are covered with a rather abundant vegetation, the southern ones are very poor or almost completely bare. In the Inshan mountains on the northern side there are large forests of poplars, willows, alders, elms, larches, junipers (Iuniperus pseudosabina), tuje, rowan trees, wild plums, dwarf oaks, while in the valleys there are lime trees, Berberis, Clematis and many alpine plants that cover the prairies with their flowers.
The dryness of the climate, the great unbalances in summer and winter temperatures, the violent atmospheric storms, the considerable salinity of the soil mean that the Mongolian flora is remarkably poor.
In the clayey-siliceous soils there are: Lasiagrostis splendens, Stipa orientalis and capillata, Caragana frutescens and several other Leguminosae of the genera Astragalus and Oxytropis, Nitraria Schoberii, Zigofillacea which goes up to 3300 m. tall and whose berries are edible. L ‘ Haloxylon ammodendron (Saxaoul) is a singular tree low afillo, characteristic of these regions, which resembles a willow capitozza and is particularly abundant in the desert and on the north side of the Zungaria dell’Alashan. In soils impregnated with sodium chloride grow: Kalidium gracile, grass much sought after by camels, Salsola arbuscula and other species, glasswort, Polygonaceae (Calligonum caput medusae, Atraphaxis), Chenopodiacee, Artemisia frigida and rupestris and many other halophytes. L ‘ Halimodendron argenteum grows especially along the banks of the rivers of the plateau Kobdo; l ‘ Agryophyllum gobicum, big Salsolacea thorny semi edible, does not exceed 48 ° lat. N. Tamarix Pallasii forms 5 m bushes. high. Since the time of Marco Polo, Mongolia was considered the homeland of rhubarb (Rheum). In the Gobi desert there is a complete lack of trees and shrubs: therefore in this region as in the highlands of Tibet the fuel of the nomads is provided by animal dung. There are very few agricultural plants (wheat, corn, barley, millet and some legumes) and the cultivated areas are very limited.