The United States of America is geographically located in North America and, socioeconomically, in Anglo-Saxon America .
It presents the fourth territory in the world in non-continuous lands with 9.3 million km², surpassed by Russia, Canada and China. The immense territory that is limited to the north, with Canada , in the south, with Mexico, in the east, with the Atlantic Ocean, in the west, with the Pacific Ocean, is composed of 50 states, 48 of them in continuous lands and two in on non-continuous or discontinuous lands, Alaska and Hawaii.
Relief and geology
In the eastern portion of the United States, a narrow coastal plain stands out where, during the population process, the Thirteen English Colonies were implanted . Surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the Mississippi River flows into a large delta, the coastal plain has sandy ridges, lagoons and mangroves.
From the central portion of the state of New York to the state of Georgia, the Appalachian Mountains , of ancient origin, that have undergone a long erosive process stand out. In addition, the sedimentation of vegetal origin in this region originated carboniferous basins.
In the central portion of the country, the Great Plain is formed by sediments of various origins and constitutes the main unit of relief in the United States. Natural conditions favored the implantation of agricultural belts.
The Rocky Mountains , which are tertiary (modern folds), extend from Montana to Arizona and have high altitudes.
The Cadeia da Costa, the Sierra Nevada and the Cadeia das Cascatas, in the western portion, are areas susceptible to great seismicity (San Andreas fault in California) and volcanisms (volcano Santa Helena).
The Intermontano plateaus – Columbia, Great Basin (Death Valley) and Colorado – are located between the Rocky Mountains and the western ranges.
Climate and vegetation
The latitudinal and territorial extension explains the United States’ climate-botanical diversity. The longitudinal arrangement of the relief limits the influence of maritimity, however the Great Central Plain facilitates the advancement of air masses during summer and winter.
The humid continental temperate climate has lower temperatures (long winters) on the Canadian border and in the Great Lakes region, in the eastern center; and in the south, summers are longer. On the Atlantic coast, the cold Labrador current makes winter more severe. Temperate forests, with deciduous leaves, predominate in the most humid areas and, in the Great Plain, the prairies or prairie stand out .
The humid subtropical climate is predominant in the southeast, with abundant rainfall in the summer and mild winters; in the region, tropical cyclones (hurricanes- hurricanes ) that form in the Antilles cause great material damage and human loss. In the southeast and Florida, we find subtropical and tropical forests.
In the Midwest, dry climates (arid-semi-arid) predominate . The steppes are typical of semi-arid regions. In the areas of higher altitude, the mountain climate prevails .
The façade of the Pacific Ocean, in the northwestern part, presents a temperate oceanic climate , with a strong influence of the hot current in Japan, which softens the temperatures in winter. In California, the Mediterranean climate predominates, with mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers, with a strong influence of the cold California current. In the more humid northwestern part, the presence of the coniferous forest is remarkable, and in the areas of slopes to the south, the redwood and cedar forests stand out. In California, forest fires are frequent, causing enormous material damage.
Alaska has the lowest temperatures in the country with polar and cold (subpolar) climates , with the respective plant formations of the tundra and taiga.
North American hydrography presents great wealth in rivers and lakes, with emphasis on the Mississippi River and its tributary Missouri , which form the largest hydrographic basin in the country, located in the central plains and which drains a large part of the river courses of the North American territory. , in addition to providing navigation and irrigation.
The Colorado River , known worldwide for the formation of the Grand Canyon, cuts through the driest region of the country before it flows into the Gulf of California. It has great importance for power generation and water supply for the population and irrigation – eg Colorado, Nevada and California.
In the United States, rivers are used for navigation, power generation and irrigation. The Great Lakes (glacial origin) are connected to the São Lourenço river, facilitating the flow of production from the Northeast region of the United States through the Atlantic.
According to Trackaah, its population, the third largest in the world, occupies the territory unevenly, concentrating mainly on coastal industrial areas, in the Great Lakes region and in urban agglomerations. Ethnically, the majority are white (of which about 13% are Hispanic) and 12% are black; the rest are mainly Asian and less than 1% are indigenous.
The United States has the largest economy in the world, with the main centers of industrial production and commercial activity on the planet. Agricultural production is based on export monoculture, with an emphasis on the cultivation of corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton etc. The USA is also among the first in the world in raising cattle, pigs, sheep and horses, and stands out as major global producers of coal, oil and electricity. Its mining generates significant surpluses of iron, copper, zinc and other ores.